Remineralisation of initial caries (enamel caries) with hydroxyapatite

Introduction

The trend in dentistry is increasingly moving towards conservative caries treatment. It is especially important to detect and treat caries as early as possible. Applications to effectively remineralize initial caries are being used more and more frequently. They are remineralized by applying a calcium or phosphate paste. These ions are available to be integrated into the enamel structure and remineralize it. One substance is considered particularly effective: hydroxyapatite or "artificial enamel". Its great similarity with natural enamel means that it can be absorbed particularly well and remineralize lesions.

Question

How efficient is hydroxyapatite in remineralizing carious enamel defects?

Material and methods

This in vitro study examined 30 intact milk teeth. The hardness of the teeth were measured using the Vickers hardness test (surface microhardness/SMH) before the teeth were demineralised for one hour. Demineralisation was conducted in two steps and aimed at creating artificially formed carious lesions. After each step, the SMH was measured before 15 teeth were each treated with a calcium and phosphate ion paste and 15 teeth with hydroxyapatite. The teeth were then coated in artificial saliva and stored in it between treatments in order to create the most realistic conditions. Both oral care products were applied twice daily for 2 minutes over 5 days. Then the SMH was measured again and both groups were compared with an independent t-test.

Results

Both groups showed an increase in SMH after the initial carious lesion. An increase in SMH can be considered an indication that the enamel was remineralized.

Conclusion

Hydroxyapatite effectively remineralizes initial carious lesions.

The publication of the study can be found here.

 

Source: Haghgoo, R., M. Ahmadvand and S. Moshaverinia (2016). “Remineralizing Effect of Topical NovaMin and Nano-hydroxyapatite on carieslike Lesions in Primary teeth.” J Contemp Dent Pract 17(8): 645-649.